AGRICULTURE INTRODUCTION: Agriculture is central to economic growth and development in Pakistan. Being the dominant sector it contributes 21. 4 percent to GDP, employs 45 percent of the countrys labour force and contributes in the growth of other sectors of the economy. During 2012-13, agriculture sector exhibited a growth of 3. 3 percent on the back of positive growth in agriculture related sub sectors, Crops grew at 3. 2 percent, Livestock 3. 7 percent, Forestry 0. 1 percent and Fishing 0. 7 percent. The agriculture subsector component which includes important crops other percent respectively.
As he performance of agriculture sector dependent upon weather condition, timely availability of input (water). During 2012-13 weather condition and water situation has an impact on these Kharif crops that paved the way for decrease in output of rice and cotton crops. Agriculture growth percentages (Base=2005-06): Other crops that contributed 12. 3 percent value addition in agriculture witnessed a positive growth of 6. 7 percent in 2012-13 against negative growth of 7. 7 percent during the same period last year. The cotton ginning under new base 2005-06 has been included in agriculture value addition showed a negative growth of 2. ercent in 2012-13 against the positive growth of 13. 8 percent during the same period last year. The Livestock sector which has a 55. 4 percent share in the agriculture grew by 3. 7 percent in 2012-13. The Fishing sector grew by 0. 7 percent as against last year’s positive growth of 3. 8 percent. Forestry sector posted a nominal growth of 0. 1 percent this year as compared to positive growth of 1. 7 percent last year. Pakistan has two crop seasons, “Kharif” being the first sowing season starting from April-June and harvested during October December. Rice, sugarcane, cotton, maize, moong, mash, baJra and Jowar are “Kharif” crops.
Rabi”, the second sowing season, begins as on October-December and is harvested in April-May. Wheat, gram, lentil (masoor), tobacco, rapeseed, barley and mustard are “Rabi” crops. The crops performance is dependent upon timely availability of irrigation water. During 2012-13, the availability of water as an essential input for Kharif 2012 was 14 percent less than the normal supplies but to compare with Kharif 2011, it was 4. 4 percent less. The water availability during Rabi season 2012-13 was estimated 31. 9 MAF, which was 12. 4 percent less than the normal availability, but 8. 5 percent higher than Crop situation:
Important croops, such as wheat, rice, maize, cotton and sugarcane account for 25. 2 percent of the value added in overall agriculture and 5. 4 percent to GDP. The other crops account for the 12. 3 percent of the value added in overall agriculture. Live stock contributes 55. 4% to agriculture value added much more then the combine contribution of important and other crops. ( 37. 6%). The production performance of important crops is given in table. a. lmportant crops: i) Cotton: Pakistan economy depends heavily on cotton crop significantly contribute by providing raw material to the textile industry, such as cotton lint as an export item.
It account for 7. 0% of value added in agriculture and 1. 5% of GDP. During 2012-13 the crops was on area of 2879 thousand heacters, 1. 6% more then last year(2835 thousand heacters). The production of 13. 0 million bales during the period2012-13 against the target of 14. 5 million bales resulted in decline of 13. 0% against the target and decrease of 4. 2 percent over the preceding year production which was 13. 6 million bales. Mild attack of Thrips, white fly and cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) adversely effected the production of cotton boll which effected the production and yield per heacter as compare to last year. )Sugarcane: Sugarcane crops occupies an important position in national economy in order to drive the large sugar industry. It also provide the material to clipboard, paper and ethanol. It share in value added in agriculture and GDP is 3. 2 and 0. 7% respectively. Sugarcane crops was cultivated on an area of 1124 thousand hecters,6. 2% more then last year’s area of area of 1058 thousand hecters. The main factor contributed to higher production where more area brought under cultivation due to economic doze of inputs. iii)Rtce: Rice is an important cash crop of coutry. Rice production comprises 40 percent of
Basmati (Fine) type and 60% of coarse types. Rice ranks as second amongst the staple food grain crop in Pakistan and it has been a major source of foreign exchange earnings in recent years. Pakistan grows a high quality of rice to fulfil the domestic demand and also for exports. Rice accounts 2. 7 percent of the value added in agriculture and 0. 6 percent of GDP. iv) Wheat: Wheat is an essential diet of population and occupies a central position in agriculture polices of the government. The government announced wheat support price of R. S 1200 which created interest on the part of farming community. Wheat contributes 10. to the value added in agriculture and 2. 2% to GDP. Area under wheat increased to 8693 thousand hecter in 2012-13 from 8650 thousand hecters showing an increase of 0. 5% over lats year’s area. During 2012-2013,the production of Gram, the largest Rabi pulses crop in Pakistan, stood at 673 thousand tones, against 284 thousand tones of last year, showing an increase of about 137. 0 percent due to increase in area and favorable weather condition, while production of baJra increased 2. 0 percent. This is in contrast to other crops like Jawar, Rapeseed & Mustard, Barley and tobacco showed an decline in production of 10. percent, 6. 7 percent, 6. percent and 1. 0 percent, respectively, in 2012-13 as compared to the corresponding period last year. Oilseed: The major oilseed crops include cottonseed, sunflower, canola and rapeseed / mustard. Although the cotton crop is grown for its lint, cottonseed contributes 50 to 60 percent to local edible oil production. During the year 2011-12, the total availability of edible oil was 2. 748 million tonnes. Local production of edible oil is remained 0. 636 million tonnes while imports were 2. 148 million tonnes. The import bill during 2011-12 stood at Rs. 216. 4 billion (IJS$ 2. 426 billion). During the year 2012-13 Ouly-March), 1 . 38 million tonnes of edible oil valued at Rs. 153. 3 billion (IJS$ 1. 595 billion) has been imported. The local production during 2012-13 Ouly-March) was 0. 612 million tonnes. Total availability of edible oil from all sources is provisionally estimated at 2. 35 million tonnes during 2012-13 Ouly-March). II. Farm Inputs: i) Fertilizer: Fertilizer is the most important and expensive input. Contribution of balanced fertilization towards increased yield is from 30 to 50 percent in different crop production regions of the country. One kg of fertilizer nutrient produces about 8 kgof ereals (wheat, maize and rice), 2. kg of cotton and 114 kg of stripped sugarcane. Almost hundred percent soils in Pakistan are deficient in nitrogen, 80 to 90 percent are deficient in phosphorus and 30 percent in potassium. Wide spread deficiency of micronutrients are also appearing in different areas. Soil fertility is continuously depleting due to mining of essential plant nutrients from the soils under intensive cultivation. it) Improved seed: Quality seed plays a pivotal role in boosting agricultural production both in market various agricultural inputs because the effectiveness of all other inputs mainly epends on the potential of the seeds.
Seed is a high technology product and is an innovation most readily adapted. Improving access to good quality of seed is a critical requirement for sustainable agricultural growth and food security. Effective use of improved/certified seed can result in higher agricultural production and increases the net income which has a positive impact on rural development. Hence, availability of quality seed of improved varieties is essential to achieve the production targets. iii) Mechanization: Mechanization of agriculture plays an important role in increasing agricultural production.
Mechanization of agriculture is crucial to achieve self sufficiency and surpluses through increasing productivity and reducing pre and post harvest losses. The government is making all efforts to modernize its agriculture and its allied fields more efficiently and productively. The use of efficient and quality farm machinery and equipment play an important role in the sowing and harvesting of agriculture crops. DuringJuly-March 2012-13 a total number of 36121 tractors were produced in the country, showing an increase of 34. 6 percent as compared to 26840tractors produced during the same period last year. v) Irrigation: Water is an important input to achieve the agriculture growth and is considered to be the lifeline of agriculture activities. Pakistan has a good irrigation canal network but temperatures and rainfalls during sowing and harvesting season has its own unique importance. a) Livestock: The livestock sector occupies a unique position in the National Agenda of economic development . The sector provides net source of foreign earnings. Historically livestock has been dominated by small holders to meet their needs of milk, food security and cash income on daily basis.
Moreover, livestock is considered a source of mployment generation at rural level, helping to reduce income variability. It is central to the livelihood of the rural poor in the country and can play an important role in poverty alleviation and keep in uplifting the socio-economic condition of our rural masses. b) Poultry: Poultry sector is one of the most organized and vibrant segments of the agriculture industry of Pakistan. This sector generates employment (direct/indirect) and income for about 1. 5 million people. Its contribution in agriculture is 5. 76 percent, livestock 10. 4 percent and in GDP at constant cost factor 1. percent. Poultry meat contributes 26. 8 percent of the total meat production in the country. Poultry sector has shown a robust growth @ 7-8 percent annually which reflects its inherent potential. The poultry value added at constant cost factor has increased from Rs. 1 13465 million (2011-12) to Rs. 121726 million (2012-13) showing an increase of 7. 3 percent as compared to previous year. Fisheries: Fishery plays an important role in Pakistan’s economy and is considered to be a source of livelihood for the coastal inhabitants. A part from marine fisheries, inland fisheries (based in rivers, lakes, ponds, dams etc. s also very important activity substantially to the national income through export earnings. During Ouly-March), 2012-13 a total of 103,822 m. tonnes of fish and fishery products were exported earning US $ 232. 4 million against a total of 90,087 m. tonnes of fish and fishery products were exported earning US $ 222. 6 million corresponding period last year showing an increase of 15. 3 percent and 4. 4 percent respectively. Future Plans: Consequent upon 18th Constitutional Amendment, the animal health and production subject have been future policy priorities therefore revolve around the following trategies.
Encouraging Public Private Partnership led development with government providing enabling environment. National economic growth. Encouraging livestock sector role and using as tool for poverty alleviation & food security. Enhance foreign exchange earnings through exports of livestock products with focus on halal food market. future policy priorities therefore revolve around the following strategies. Encouraging Public Private Partnership led development with government providing enabling environment. National economic growth. with focus on halal food market.