Elements of Poetry
Petrarchan sonnet (puh TRAHR kun) a fourteen line sonnet consisting of two parts: the octave, eight lines with the rhyme scheme abbaabba, and the sestet, six lines usually with the rhyme scheme cdecde the octave often poses a question or dilemma that the sestet answers or resolves, beginning with a turn, also known as a volta also referred to as an Italian sonnet Example: Whoso list to hunt, I know where is an hind!
But as for me, alas, I may no more; The vain travail hath wearied me so sore, I am of them that furthest come behind. Yet may I by no means my wearied mind Draw from the deer, but as she fleeth afore Fainting I follow; I leave off therefore, Since in a net I seek to hold the wind. Who list her hunt, I put him out of doubt, As well as l, may spend his time in vain. And graven with diamonds in letters plain, “Noli me tangere, for Caesar’s I am, And wild for to hold, though I seem tame. “Whoso List to Hunt,” Thomas Wyatt) plaintive poetry verse that expresses grief or sadness [see also elegy, eulogy] poet laureate (POH et LORE ee it) a title of distinction given to the official poet of a nation or kingdom poetaster POH it ass turr) a label applied to a poet with little skill or literary regard from his or her peers [see also epigone] poetic diction the specific word choice and style used in poetry, particularly that which is not used in prose; often suggests ornamental, figurative, and, sometimes, archaic language [see also poeticism] poeticism (poh ET eh sizm) diction, usually archaic, that is generally used only for poetry “o’er,” “doth,” and “bestride” [see also archaism, poetic diction] poetry a literary work written in verse form in which rhythmic language and syntax, as well s literary and sound devices, are used for effect; from “making” or “creating” (Greek) poulter’s measure a rhyming couplet consisting of an iambic hexameter (alexandrine) and an iambic heptameter (fourteener); frequently used in morality plays and 16th century poetry So feeble is the thread that doth the burden stay Of my poor life, in heavy plight that falleth in decay, (Sir Thomas Wyatt) prose poetry a work distinguished as prose but having the conventions of poetry, such as ornate, rhythmic language and the incorporation of rhyme and other sound devices notable writers of this type include T. S.
Eliot, Amy Lowell, and Oscar Wilde prosody (PRAHZ uh dee) the analysis and study of versification (including elements such as form, meter, and rhyme) [see also scansion] (PEER 1k) a metrical foot consisting of two unaccented syllables; a pyrrhic foot is extremely rare in English poetry also referred to as a dibrach “i h?¤ve be?©n pro??d ?¤nd said, ‘MY love, my Own. ” [the first two syllables from Elizabeth Brownings Sonnets from the Portuguese contain a pyrrhic foot, followed by four iambic feet] quantitative verse the categorization of meter according to syllable length rather than on stresses; used requently in Latin and Greek poetry but rarely in English poetry quatrain (KWAH trane) a stanza containing four lines also referred to as a tetrastich (TEH truh stik) refrain (ree FRAYN) lines that recur throughout a poem or lyrics of a song “She said, ‘I am aweary, aweary, / I would that I were dead. [every stanza but the last in Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s "Mariana” concludes with the preceding two-line refrain] [s[see also envelope]rep ih TEND or REP ih tend) a syllable, word, or line of verse that is repeated at irregular intervals throughout a poem [s[see also refrain]everdie rev er DEE) a poem that celebrates the arrival of spring rhyme royal (RIME rot AL) a seven line poem written in iambic pentameter that has the rhyme scheme ababbcc also referred to as a Chaucerian stanza The double sorwe of Troilus to tellen, That was the king Priamus sone of Troye, In lovinge, how his aventures fellen Fro wo to wele, and after out of loye, My purpos is, er that I parte fro ye. Thesiphone, thou help me for tendyte Thise woful vers, that wepen as I wryte! Troilus and Criselde, Chaucer) a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables; the “beat” of a work, often expressed s cadence (KAY dens), the rising and falling of the rhythm rising rhythm when unstressed syllables are linked with stressed syllables that follow rather than precede them rondel (RON dull) a verse form similar to the French rondeau composed of thirteen to fourteen lines, with a two-line refrain that opens the rondel and reappears as lines seven and eight (the rhyme scheme is usually ABba abAB abbaA) not to be confused with the roundel Your two great eyes will slay me suddenly; Their beauty shakes me who was once serene; Straight through my heart the wound is quick and keen. Only your word will heal the injury To my hurt heart, while yet the wound is clean – Their beauty shakes me who was once serene.
Through life and after death you are my queen; For with my death the whole truth shall be seen. (Rondel of Merciless Beauty, Geoffrey Chaucer) roundel (ROUN dull) a verse form similar to the French rondeau; created by Algernon Charles Swinburne contains three stanzas, with four lines, 3 lines, and 4 lines each, including a refrain following the third and the tenth line (the refrain mimics some or all of the first line and rhymes with the second line) with the rhyme scheme abaR bab abaR ot to be confused with the rondel A roundel is wrought as a ring or a starbright sphere, With craft of delight and with cunning of sound unsought, That the heart of the hearer may smile if to pleasure his ear A roundel is wrought.
Its Jewel of music is carven of all or of aught – Love, laughter, or mourning–remembrance of rapture or fear – As a bird’s quick song runs round, and the hearts in us hear Pause answer to pause, and again the same strain caught, So moves the device whence, round as a pearl or tear, (A Century of Roundels, Algernon Charles Swinburne) roundelay (ROUN dih lay) dancing song with a refrain scansion (SCAN shun) the analysis of poetic meter (scanning), typically using visual symbols denoting the accent of the syllable (diacritical marks) unstressed syllables are indicated by the slightly curved diacritical mark (?¤, ?©, i, ?¶, ??) stressed syllables are indicated by the accent grave (?¤, ?©, i, 6, ??) [s[see also prosody]eptet (sep TET) a stanza with seven lines sestet (SES tet) a six-line stanza that follows the octave in a Petrarchan or Miltonic sonnet usually begins with a turn (Volta) in the first line sestina (sess TEE nah) lyric poem of six six-lined (usually unrhymed) stanzas followed by a tercet (for a total of 39 lines); from “sixth” (Italian) “Sestina” (Dante) Shakespearean sonnet a fourteen line sonnet consisting of three quatrains with the rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef, followed by a couplet rhyming gg also referred to as an English sonnet Let me not to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments.
Love is not love Which alters when it alteration finds, Or bends with the remover to remove: That looks on tempests and is never shaken; It is the star to every wand’ring bark, Whose worth’s unknown, although his heighth be taken. Love’s not Time’s fool, though rosy lips and cheeks Within his bending sickle’s compass come; Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, But bears it out even to the edge of doom: If this be error and upon me proved, I never writ, nor no man ever loved. (“Sonnet 1 16,” Shakespeare) shanty a maritime work song with the purpose of establishing a rhythm for the coordination of shipboard activities also referred to as a sea shanty or chantey I’ll sing you a song, a good song of the sea With a way, hey, blow the man down And trust that you’ll Join in the chorus with me